Context and overview
The Mediterranean Economies 2023 is a collection of essays that analyze the economic, political, and social effects of the Russia-Ukraine war in the Mediterranean region.
The publishing project began in 2005 as Rapporto sulle economie del Mediterraneo, and each year, it focuses on contemporary issues in the Mediterranean region, shaped by events like climate change impacts, economic challenges due to European debt crises, socioeconomic gaps, labor market changes, migration issues following the Arab Spring, political instability, religious radicalization, terrorist groups, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the socio-economic consequences of the Russia-Ukraine war in the Mediterranean.
From 2020, the Mediterranean Economies Report is published in English and becomes Mediterranean Economies (2020 Edition).
The Mediterranean Economies series aims to serve as a permanent observatory for socio-economic dynamics in the Euro-Mediterranean area. It provides a valuable resource for researchers, scholars and policy makers seeking to better understand the phenomena influencing the societies within this region. The observatory project includes a dedicated website (https://www.ismed.cnr.it/rem) and a database containing essential socio-economic indicators for Mediterranean economies (http://datamed.cnr.it/).
In this issue
Over the last three years, the world’s economies have grappled with three major challenges: the COVID-19 pandemic, a significant rise in inflation, and the Russia-Ukraine conflict, which has increased geopolitical tensions. These shocks have had significant negative effects on global economic growth prospects. However, the impact has been uneven, with notable variations, particularly among Mediterranean countries.
Fear-driven market responses have deeply affected food and energy supplies. The Russian-Ukrainian conflict caused a rapid surge in wheat prices, hitting levels last seen in 2008. This crisis has extended to higher oil and gas costs, increased transportation and insurance expenses, trade instability, and port disruptions. Bank transfer restrictions with Russia have worsened economic conditions. Globally, the recession amplified economic downturns, decreased employment, transportation, and productivity, resulting in severe disruptions across supply chains.
One potential silver lining in the inflation, particularly in commodities like fuel, is that it may compel governments worldwide to seek energy security through sustainable solutions aligned with the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda.
The Mediterannean Economies 2023 is a collection of essays that analyses the economic, political and social effects of the Russia-Ukraine war in the Mediterranean area.
Annuary – 1 issue per year
All Mediterranean Economies chapters are submitted to the following process before being published:
1) The Mediterranean Economies editorial board and editors submit chapters to experts in the area after receiving submissions from the authors.
The peer review is managed by a specialist in the same area as the author.
2) The reviewers carefully assess the quality of the submitted manuscripts.
3) The research methodology and procedures are assessed by the peer reviewers for their validity.
4) Revisions are suggested if necessary.
5) Chapters are rejected on the basis of lack of academic credibility and quality.
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/p1
Mediterranean Economies 2023 Scientific committee: Hassan Abouyoub (Ambassador to His Majesty the King of Morocco) Adalgiso Amendola (University of Salerno) Paola Avallone (CNR-ISMed) Naor Ben-Yehoyada (Columbia University) Patrizio Bianchi (former Minister of Education) Salvatore Capasso (CNR-DSU) Claudio De Vincenti (former Minister for Territorial Cohesion and the Southern Italy) Anna Maria Ferragina (University of Salerno) Giampaolo Frezza (University of Rome «LUMSA») Michael Herzfeld (Harvard University) Paolo Malanima («Magna Graecia» University of Catanzaro) Luigi Paganetto (University of «Tor Vergata», Rome) Desirée A.L. Quagliarotti (CNR-ISMed) Giovanni Tria (former Minister of Economy and Finance) Marco Zupi (International Centre for Policy Studies) Editorial committee: Coordinator Giovanni Canitano (CNR-ISMed) Design and pagination Aniello Barone (CNR-ISMed) Editing Giovanni Ruggiero (CNR-ISMed) English editor Mark Walters Mediterranean Economies 2023 web site:...
Pagine | 2 - 2
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/p2
The 2023 edition of Mediterranean Economies is dedicated to Professor and friend Roberto Aliboni, who has been one of the most important and knowledgeable authors of the ISMed report for many years. Throughout his extensive and successful career as a researcher and advocate for Euro-Mediterranean dialogue and cooperation, Roberto played a prominent role in conceiving and establishing the Mediterranean Study Commission (MeSCo) in 1994, which has now evolved into EuroMeSCo. This network consists of experts and research institutes from both sides of the Mediterranean. In recent years, Roberto served as a scientific advisor to the Italian Institute of International Affairs (IAI) and continued to study Mediterranean issues and countries with his characteristic passion and insight. He devoted particular attention to countries like Libya and Syria, which held great importance to him. The scientific advisor, editorial board, and editors of Mediterranean Economies hold profound respect and...
Pagine | 7 - 7
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/p3
Over the past three years, the global economy has faced a series of significant shocks. The COVID-19 pandemic emerged in early 2020, severely impacting international trade and extending its consequences to 2022 and beyond. Then the Russian-Ukrainian war, which began on February 24 2022, has had a profound effect on energy prices, increased uncertainty and led major economies towards geopolitical polarization. Lastly, the sharp rise in inflation levels across most major economies has had enduring effects on various sectors worldwide. These three shocks have greatly hindered the growth prospects of many economies globally, but their impact has been asymmetric, with certain regions and countries suffering more than others. This asymmetry is particularly evident among Mediterranean (Med) countries. For example, Euro Med economies have been more seriously affected by the COVID-19 pandemic compared to other Med countries, while some South Med countries have demonstrated greater resilience...
Pagine | 9 - 21
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/p4
Pagine | 23 - 23
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/c1
The book opens by examining the region situation and the main trends in MENA (Middle East and North Africa) from August 2021 to December 2022. The analysis engages events such the US and NATO withdrawal from Afghanistan and Chinese President Xi Jinpingʼs visit to the Arabian Peninsula. The background of the discussion is the renewed international competition among major powers after the Russian invasion of Ukraine.
Pagine | 25 - 54
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/c2
The aim of the chapter concerns the economic consequences and the long-run growth effects of the Russian-Ukrainian war in Mediterranean countries. Beside the conflict, the study focuses also on COVID-19 pandemic and the recent high level of inflation in more advanced economies. These issues represent further significant shocks that affect the economic situation of the examined area.
Pagine | 69 - 90
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/c3
The Ukrainian war has intensified tensions between Russian and European authorities, leading to one-year stop in exports to Russia. This chapter is focused on the implications of export disruptions for Spain and Italy. The authorsʼ analysis offers valuable insights for policymakers to identify the sectors that may face the greatest consequences and explores alternative solutions and compensatory measures.
Pagine | 91 - 108
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/c4
The current subpart is about EU energy dependency and investigates the dynamics of the commercial trade in energy sources in the Med area and in MENA countries, considering the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. The authors mainly focus on the exports and imports of fossil fuels, but also analyse the dynamics of the renewable energy market.
Pagine | 113 - 139
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/c5
This chapter analyses the role of trade policies in addressing food security. The MENA region faces huge challenges regarding this issue, dealing with supply chain disruptions and surges due to COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukrainian war. In addition, long-standing problems, such as population growth, climate change, land degradation and water deficiency furthermore increase food troubles in the region.
Pagine | 141 - 169
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/c6
The authors of the chapter examine how COVID-19 has affected ongoing processes of digitalization in the EuroMed countries, taking into account the acceleration in digital transition for many countries due to the Russia-Ukraine war. The analysis employs a longitudinal dataset on digitalization produced by the European Union and measured through the so-called Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI).
Pagine | 175 - 220
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/c7
In this chapter the focus shifts on logistic issues, investigating the impact of the Russia-Ukraine war on freight transport in the Mediterranean area. It comes up in particular an increasing difficulty of South Mediterranean countries integrating in international supply chains and adapting their transport systems to the changes that have taken place in global logistics and supply chain management.
Pagine | 235 - 260
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/c8
This subpart examines the interconnection between external events like war and climate change and their impact on human migration. The aim is to deepen their relationship and to understand how such movements could reinforce existing inequalities or create new imbalances, with a specific focus on the gender gap.
Pagine | 267 - 291
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/c9
This final section is dedicated to human development, sustainability and environment issues. The authors of the chapter consider and examine the Mediterranean region both as a nexus for water, energy and food (WEF) and a hotspot for climate change. The analysis further explains how the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war has significantly disrupted energy and food markets and provides specific recommendations to win the challenge.
Pagine | 299 - 328
DOI | 10.1401/9788815411167/c10
This last chapter delve into the potential impact of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict on urban and economic sustainability of Mediterranean cities. The authors compare proxy indexes of sustainable development goals (SDG) before and after the outbreak of war. They also consider environmental analysis alongside social and welfare dimensions to assess the progress of Mediterranean cities toward SDG achievement.
Pagine | 331 - 354